Peste des petits ruminants virus is a member of the genus Morbillivirus within the family Paramyxoviridae. Goats and sheep are the major species susceptible to the virus. Infection of susceptible species leads to high fever, conjunctival and nasal discharges, mucosal erosion of alimentary tract, interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid depletion. The morbidity of the disease ranges from 5% to 90% and the mortality can reach 80%. During the last decade, peste des petits ruminants moved eastwards from its historical habitats, Africa, Middle East, and Indian Peninsula, to Central Asia. In early 2014, the virus invaded goat populations throughout China, resulting a devastating economic loss in China. Facing the increasing threat of peste des petits ruminants invading to Taiwan, preparedness and response plans against the potential outbreaks are essential.